Overall Rating Silver
Overall Score 55.10
Liaison Kimberly Hodge
Submission Date March 6, 2020

STARS v2.2

Washington and Lee University
AC-9: Research and Scholarship

Status Score Responsible Party
Complete 12.00 / 12.00 Kimberly Hodge
Director of Sustainability Initiatives and Education
Student Affairs
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Total number of employees that conduct research:
261

Number of employees engaged in sustainability research:
106

Percentage of employees that conduct research that are engaged in sustainability research:
40.61

Total number of academic departments that include at least one employee who conducts research:
32

Number of academic departments that include at least one employee who conducts sustainability research:
24

Percentage of departments that conduct research that are engaged in sustainability research:
75

A copy of the inventory of the institution’s sustainability research (upload):
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Inventory of the institution’s sustainability research:

Accounting, 9 faculty, 3 doing sustainability research
Elizabeth Oliver, corporate social responsibility
Megan Hess, ethical decision making, sustainability accounting
Colin Reid, corporate social responsibility

Africana Studies Program, 1 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 1 doing sustainability research
Michael Hill, Nationalism, Gender, and Race

Art and Art History: 8 faculty, 2 doing sustainability research
Andrea Lepage, Visual art that investigate themes of memory, forgetting, and loss in relation to Mexican American and Latina/o history and culture; muralism; the politics of race in art; racialized violence in art history; the objects of cultural memory; and decolonizing museums and galleries.
Melissa Kerin, the intricate and multifaceted relationships between art and identity formation (political and cultural), cultural memory, and religious praxis

Biology: 11 Faculty members, 7 doing sustainability research
Sarah Blythe, food and nutrition
Bill Hamilton, grazing and plant communities in Yellowstone National Park
Paul Cabe, population genetics of crayfish
Larry Hurd, dynamics of ecological communities in Virginia and the Amazon
David Marsh, salamander conservation biology
Maryanne Simurda, black lung disease in coal miners (outreach)
Fiona Watson, effects of pesticide exposure

Business Administration, 17 faculty, 7 doing sustainability research
Amanda Bower. Corporate social responsibility.
Roger Dean. Work and family.
Elizabeth Gilbert, employee well-being
Drew Hess, Sustainable business practices
Sandy Reiter, Economic Justice.
Rob Straughan. Socially responsible business
Julie Youngman, environmental law and policy

Chemistry and Biochemistry. 10 faculty, 3 doing sustainability research.
Erich Uffelman. Green chemistry
Marcia France, chemical reactions and associated waste, development of environmentally friendly reagents
Matt Tuchler, kinetic measurements in studies of reactions involving NO2 and for better determination of NO2 absorption cross sections for use in atmospheric modeling

Classics. 4 faculty, 0 doing sustainability.

Cognitive and Behavioral Studies, 8 faculty, 2 doing sustainability research.
Ryan Brindle, mental stress on health, disease and sleep
Megan Fulcher. Children’s emotional development, work and family.
Julie Woodzicka. Prejudice and discrimination.

Comparative Literature, 1 faculty, 0 doing sustainability work

Computer Science. 6 faculty, 0 doing sustainability

Digital Culture and Information, 7 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 1 doing sustainability work
Mackenzie Brooks, interconnectedness of technology and its impact on the world

East Asian Language and Literature. 3 faculty, 0 doing sustainability research.

Economics, 14 faculty, 11 doing sustainability research
Niels-Hugo Blunch. Health care markets in developing countries.
Jim Casey. Valuation of ecological services.
Martin Davies. Offshoring and developing economies.
Tim Diette, economics of education, health economics
Art Goldsmith. Economics and social justice.
Joseph Guse. American Indian economic development.
Chris Handy. Education and earnings, inequality.
Carl Kaiser. Economics of unemployment and worker absence.
Matt Naven, economics of education, public finance, poverty
Katherine Shester. Public housing and urban renewal.
Shikha Silwal. Developmental economics, costs of piracy.

English, 14 faculty, 11 doing sustainability research.
Marc Conner, African-American literature, literature and religion
Lena Hill, Nineteenth and twentieth century African American literature; visual culture; U.S. literature and drama
Leah Green, Environmental literature, creative writing, eco-poetics, Buddhist ecology and community
Wan-Chuan Kao, Medieval literature, especially Chaucer; whiteness studies; critical theory; race and ethnicity; gender and sexuality; queer studies; hotel theory; affect; and cute studies.
Diego Millan, Nineteenth and Twentieth African-American and American literature and culture; Black Studies; Performance Studies; theories of laughter and comedy
Deborah Miranda. Literature of marginalized groups
Holly Pickett, religious identities and controversies, representations of religious difference
Kary Smout, environmental persuasion, Native American literature
Taylor Walle, literature by women, women and gender studies
Leslie Wheeler, gender, place, and community
Ricardo Wilson, Twentieth and twenty-first-century African-American and American literature and culture; hemispheric studies of blackness; the evacuation of language around issues of race

Environmental Studies 4 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 4 sustainability related work
Chelsea Fisher, Environmental anthropological archaeology; food and agriculture; environmental justice; historical ecology; traditional ecological knowledge; Maya of Yucatán
Kimberly Hodge, sustainability studies, waste streams and circular economy, food and compost cycle
Robert Humston, freshwater fisheries management and conservation
Jim Kahn. Environmental economics.

Geology. 6 faculty, 4 doing sustainability research.
David Harbor, Soils and soil organic carbon, regenerative agriculture, river erosion and landscapes
Lisa Greer. Coral reef conservation, climate change.
Margaret Anne Hinkle, water resources and hydrology, aqueous geochemistry
Elizabeth Knapp. Low-temperature aqueous geochemistry, water quality and contaminant transport, rock weathering processes, geochemical evolution and paleoclimate, and iron geochemistry

German and Arabic. 4 faculty, 0 doing sustainability research.

History. 13 faculty, 6 doing sustainability research.
David Bello. Environmental history of China.
Ted Delaney. Desegregation in Virginia.
Sarah Horowitz. Societal divisions in post-revolutionary France, mass culture, politics, gender roles, sexuality and crime in early twentieth-century France
Molly Michelmore. Fiscal and taxation policy and effects on society.
Nicolaas Rupke, History of science and medicine; national science of Great Britain and Germany; science & society; science & religion; history of evolutionary biology; scientific biography
Roberta Senechal, U.S. social history, violence, women in America

Journalism and Mass Communication. 10 faculty, 4 doing sustainability research.
Claudette Artwick, sustainability communication
Aly Colón, Poverty in the media, ethics, race and ethnicity in the media
Doug Cumming. Civil rights history in the U.S.
Alecia Swasy, rural poverty in America

Law 40 faculty, 10 doing sustainability work
David Baluarte, Immigration, Refugees and Statelessness, International Human Rights
Matthew Boaz, immigration and immigrant rights
Johanna Bond, International Human Rights, Gender and the Law
Mark A. Drumbl, International Law,Transnational Law, Mass Violence and Human Rights, Global Environmental Governance
Jill Fraley, environmental law
Margaret Hu, civil rights
Timothy C. MacDonnell, Advanced Administrative Litigation Clinic (Black Lung)
Kish Parella, Corporate Social Responsibility
Thomas H. Speedy Rice, international legal reforms, Human Rights, specifically access to legal aid in criminal matters, in the fight against the death penalty, and teaching in international legal education reform
Alex Zhang, public access to legal information

Mathematics. 10 faculty, 0 doing sustainability research.

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 1 faculty member (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 0 doing sustainability research

Music, N/A, not research.

Neuroscience (all associated faculty counted in other programs)

Philosophy. 8 faculty, 3 doing sustainability research.
Melina Bell. Hierarchies of social power and equality, feminist philosophy.
Greg Cooper. Environmental ethics.
Angela Smith. Moral responsibility and philosophy.

Physics and Engineering. 6 faculty, 3 doing sustainability research.
Kacie D'Alessandro, civil engineering, concrete structures, and natural fibers in concrete mix development, “Concrete for Kids”
Jonathan Erickson, bioinspired design, Engineering Community Development advisor
Joel Kuehner, geophysical flow, turbulent flow

Politics. 10 faculty, 7 doing sustainability research.
Brian Alexander, social justice
Lucas Morel, Black American politics
Stuart Gray, politics and religion, freedom, contemporary political philosophy
Rebecca Harris. Food supply and politics.
Robin LeBlanc. Gender equality in politics.
Zoila Ponce de Leon, Comparative Politics, Social Policy, Comparative Political Economy, Latin American Politics, Political Parties, Representation, Immigration
Mark Rush. Voting behavior, districting and voter suppression.

Religion. 4 faculty, 2 doing sustainability research.
Kameliya N. Atanasova, Sufism, gender and sexuality in Islam, and animals in religion
Alexandra Brown, gender and religion

Romance Languages. 12 faculty, 4 doing sustainability research.
Monica Botta, human rights in latin America.
Ellen Mayock. Gender equality, human rights in Latin America, immigrant populations in U.S.
Seth Michelson, feminist poetics, state violence, colonialism, neoliberalism
Antonio Reyes. Language and social change.

Russian Area Studies 1 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 0 doing sustainability work

Shepherd Poverty and Human Capabilities 2 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere) 2 doing sustainability work
Howard Pickett, Ethics, poverty, distributive justice, modern religious thought, philosophical and religious anthropology, the ethics of imitation, sincerity, the role of religion in private and public ethics
Marisa Charley, poverty and human capability studies, community-engaged learning and research, social justice

Sociology and Anthropology, 9 faculty, 7 doing sustainability research
Alison Bell, historical archaeology, material culture, consumption and production
Lynn Chin, intragroup cooperation and formation of social stereotypes
Jonathan Eastwood, Nationalism and national identity, including their relationship to global migration; religion and politics; behavioral and structural bases of cooperation and conflict
Donald Gaylord, post-revolutionary adoption of slave-based labor by the descendants of Scotch-Irish settlers to the Great Valley of Virginia
Harvey Markowitz, inter-relationships among American Indian religions, landscapes, cultures, histories, and identities
Marcos Perez, political sociology, social movements, urban studies, immigration reform
Lynn Rainville, sharing the untold stories of overlooked Virginians, studying enslaved communities, graveyards and cemeteries, segregated schools, World War I and town poor farms

Teacher Education, 2 faculty (other affiliated faculty counted elsewhere), 1 doing sustainability work
Eric Moffa, Rural Education, Democracy and Citizenship Education, Global Citizenship Education, Digital Citizenship, Teaching Controversial Issues

Theater, Dance and Film. 6 faculty, 1 doing sustainability work
Stephanie Sandberg, Theater for Social Justice, Contemporary issues in theater, Human Trafficking, Human Sexuality and its representations on stage

SUMMARY
32 departments considered, 24 include at least one person doing research related to sustainability (75%).
261 faculty considered, 106 of whom do research related to sustainability (40.6%)


A brief description of the methodology the institution followed to complete the research inventory:

For the STARS research and scholarship component, we were charged to determine the proportion of faculty conducting research related to sustainability and the proportion of departments that include at least some sustainability research. To determine this, we went through all department faculty websites and read the research description provided by each faculty. These descriptions were compared to the definition provided in the STARS manual “Standards and Terms” section. We included full-time faculty, but not adjuncts, emeriti, or visiting faculty as these would not typically be considered research-related positions. We attempted to use a somewhat restrictive interpretation of sustainability-related research; most faculty would likely argue that their research broadly relates to human well-being as referenced in the Earth Charter. However, others repeating these calculations could easily come up with higher or lower numbers depending on their interpretations of these terms.


Website URL where information about the institution’s sustainability research is available:
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Additional documentation to support the submission:
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The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution and complete the Data Inquiry Form.