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Liaison Kathleen Crawford
Submission Date July 28, 2017
Executive Letter Download

STARS v2.1

Florida Gulf Coast University
OP-10: Biodiversity

Status Score Responsible Party
Complete 2.00 / 2.00 John Herman
Assistant Professor
Biological Sciences
"---" indicates that no data was submitted for this field

Does the institution own or manage land that includes or is adjacent to legally protected areas, internationally recognized areas, priority sites for biodiversity, and/or regions of conservation importance?:

A brief description of the legally protected areas, internationally recognized areas, priority sites for biodiversity, and/or regions of conservation importance:

FGCU has over half of its campus allocated to conservation areas or preserves.

Conservation Areas and Wetland Areas as defined by South Florida Water Management District. This agency is responsible for permitting water management on FGCU's campus, as well as management of water during and around construction projects. (http://www.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/sfwmdmain/home%20page)

Has the institution conducted an assessment or assessments to identify endangered and vulnerable species (including migratory species) with habitats on institution-owned or –managed land?:

Has the institution conducted an assessment or assessments to identify environmentally sensitive areas on institution-owned or –managed land?:

The methodologies used to identify endangered and vulnerable species and/or environmentally sensitive areas (including most recent year assessed) and any ongoing assessment and monitoring mechanisms:

Endangered and vulnerable species and environmentally sensitive areas are assessed and monitored through the campus master planning process, the Campus Ecosystem Model (CEM), faculty research, and the Environmental Sustainability Committee (ESC).

Please see attached report -
“Status and Monitoring of Biodiversity on the Florida Gulf Coast University Campus”

A brief description of identified species, habitats and/or environmentally sensitive areas:

The Campus Ecosystem Model at FGCU identifies the following major natural ecosystems that comprise our main campus. Additional ecosystems, such as Pine-Oak Scrub, Mangrove, Estuary, and Salt Marsh ecosystems are located at auxiliary campuses in Lee and Collier counties. Our on-campus research includes viewing the developed areas as also potential habitats for nurturing biodiversity, following the concept of reconciliation ecology. These studies should impact how we develop the campus, in particular the landscaping, and how those developed lands are managed, long-term (e.g. minimizing pesticide use).

Pine Flatwoods (http://www.fgcu.edu/CAS/CEM/pine.html)

A pine flatwoods can be most easily recognized by pine trees forming a canopy that is more open than, for example, the canopy in a cypress slough. A common species association in this ecosystem is pine-gallberry-saw palmetto. Areas considered pine flatwoods are found from the Carolinas sweeping down into the peninsular Florida. Plants in this habitat are adapted to a frequent fire regime. In northern parts of the state long leaf pine may appear more often than in the southern and southwestern parts of Florida where the upland pines are dominated by slash pine. Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) is common to uplands in southwest Flroida, including the FGCU campus. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is a typical understory species, well-adapted to fire-dominated systems, easily identified by large, fan-shaped leaves and trunks that tend to grow horizontally along the ground. Other common understory and groundcover species include wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), tarflower (Befaria racemosa), gallberry (Ilex glabra), and a wide variety of grasses and herbs. Fetterbush (Lyonia lucida) and bay trees (Persia sp.) are found near ponds within pine flatwood areas; while saw palmetto, gallberry, and rusty lyonia (Lyonia ferruginea) occupy slash pine flatwoods sites.

Hardwood Hammocks

Hardwood hammocks in Florida are defined as forests of principally broad-leaved hardwood trees. These ecosystems are typically dominated by oak trees (Quercus sp.), red maples (Acer rubra) and/or mahogany trees (Swietenia mahagoni) in southern Florida. There are several different types of hardwood hammocks in southern Florida such as Maritime, Tropical, or Temperate Hardwood Hammocks, and each hammock type has a unique species composition that is partially determined by the environmental conditions of the location. On the FGCU campus, the hardwood hammocks are more temperate in nature with an overstory that tends to be dominated by live oaks (Quercus virginiana), laurel oaks (Quercus laurifolia) oaks and red maples (Acer rubrum). The understory in these systems is often more dense than the pine flatwoods described above and includes species such as marlberry (Ardisia escallonioides), wild coffee (Psychotria nervosa) and myrsine (Myrsine guianensis). The environmental conditions within the canopy tend to be relatively humid, lower in radiation due to shading by the overstory trees and have cooler temperatures compared to pine flatwoods. These conditions tend to reduce fire frequency, which is important since hardwood hammocks are less adapted to fire than many other Florida ecosystems. The soils tend to have a dominant humus layer over a limestone or sand substrate. This humus is dominated by decomposing plant material that serves as an important source of nutrients.
Cypress Swamp (http://www.fgcu.edu/CAS/CEM/cypress.html)

These regularly inundated wetlands form a forested border along large rivers, creeks, and lakes, or occur in depressions as circular domes or linear strands. Cypress swamp communities are strongly dominated by either bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) or pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens, with very low numbers of scattered red maple and swamp bay (Persia palustris) . Understory and ground cover are usually sparse due to frequent flooding and shading but may include such species as buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), lizard's-tail (Saururus cernuus), and various ferns. The canopy of a cypress swamp is dense, and is produced by cypress and other trees as well as epiphytic plants.
Wet Prairie (http://www.fgcu.edu/CAS/CEM/prairie.html)

The transitional zone between land and water is referred to as a wetland, and marshes make up one third of Florida’s wetlands. "Marshes are wetlands dominated by herbaceous plants rooted in and generally emergent from shallow water that stands at or above the ground surface for much of the year" (Myers & Ewel, 1990). There are nine types of marshes in Florida, with the wet prairie being the most common type of marsh found on Florida Gulf Coast University’s campus. A wet prairie ecosystem can be identified by its lack of trees, sparse to dense ground cover of grasses and herbs, and flat terrain. The timing and length of the dry season, relative to the seed types available in the substrate, determine which flora germinate and flourish. Some examples of plant species found in marshes are maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), cordgrass (Spartina bakeri), beakrush (Rhynchospora spp.), and muhly (Muhlenbergia fillipes). Subtropical locations, fluctuating water levels, recurring fires, and hard water also shape marshes. Wetland preservation and restoration on the FGCU campus has embraced the ecological reality of the critical ecological role of associated upland systems.

Retention Ponds (http://www.fgcu.edu/CAS/CEM/lakes.html)

In addition to being surrounded by water on three sides, Florida is also home to some 10,400 freshwater lakes, many of which are located in northern Florida. Of these, more than 7800 are larger than 0.4 hectares, covering a total of 9270 square kilometers, encompassing more than six-percent of Florida’s landscape (Myers & Ewel, 1990). Lakes are a common feature of the landscape in some areas of Florida due in part to the abundance of rainfall and the flat irregular surface that characterizes the state. Many of Florida’s lakes are highly diverse in their flora and fauna; for example, approximately 40 species of native fishes and 20 species of nonnative fishes inhabit these systems. Florida lakes are unusual in that underground tunnels often connect them; however, they are not as "systemic" as riverine and canal systems (Alden et al., 1998). Because of this, invasive exotics have not been as successful invading lake ecosystems. In addition to fish, many different species of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and water birds may be found in association with these lakes. Lakes not only harbor great numbers of plants and animals, but they also mitigate the surrounding microclimate. For example,extended, gradual heat release by lakes helps protect surrounding crops from freezing. The FGCU campus includes no natural lakes, but retention ponds are a required feature for stormwater permitting, and southwest Florida is now home to approximately 10,000 of these human-created wetland systems. Currently twelve ponds have been constructed and are being managed to maximize native emergent and submerged vegetation.

Campus Vegetation Inventories:

During the initial site evaluation, 29 species of protected plants were observed on the project site: 1 endangered, 22 threatened, 5 commercially exploited, 1 candidate for listing. The most frequently encountered protected plants were dahoon holly (Ilex cassine), stiff-leaved wild-pine
(Tillandsia fasciculata), golden polypody (Phlebodium aureum), shoestring fern (Vittaria lineata), southern shield fern (Thelypteris kunthii), and brake fern (Pteris vittata). The least common, found at one or two locations, were: branded wild-pine (Tillandsia flexuosa), cigar orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum), pine lily (Lilium catesbaei), giant ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes praecox), and strap fern (Camplyloneuron pyllitidus). Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) orchids (Orchideceae), and ferns and fern-allies (Osmundaceae, Polypodiaceae, Psilotaceae, Pteridaceae, Schizaceae, Thlypteridaceae, and Vittariaeae) were the most represented taxa (2015-2015 Campus Master Plan Update).

From 2002 to 2006, Dr. George Wilder conducted a floristic inventory of the FGCU campus for wild growing plant species. During this assessment, 564 taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, formas) of vascular plants were identified growing wild (not planted) on our campus. This count included species both native and non-native to Florida. At FGCU, these plants grow in natural areas, in disturbed areas, and in developed areas such as lawns, and shrub beds.

According to Wilder, one species identified “Lipocarpha maculata, had formerly been listed as extirpated in South Florida, by Gann et al. (2002). That species had been collected previously only once in South Florida, in Lee Co.; however, I recently located L. maculata at two locations within Lee Co., including FGCU. Gann et al. (2002) also listed six species and one variety of the present inventory as critically imperiled in South Florida: Bartonia virginica, Burmannia biflora, Juncus repens, Rhynchospora fernaldii, Scleria ciliata var. curtissii, Spiranthes praecox, and Spiranthes torta. For Lee Co., Burmannia biflora and Spiranthes praecox had each been collected previously only once (in 1964 and 1930, respectively), and there had been no previous collections of Bartonia virginica, Juncus repens, Scleria ciliata var. curtissii, and Spiranthes torta. I have located minimal number(s) of additional localities for six of the seven species and for the one variety, aforementioned in this paragraph, in Lee Co. and/or in Collier Co (all taxa but S. torta). At FGCU, five species and the one variety grow within pine flatwoods situated within the eastern sector of the campus. These flatwoods – or portion(s) thereof – are being considered for development. I submit that the presence of rare native taxa and the high quality of these flatwoods render development inappropriate.” (Appendix B).

Wilder also noted the following regionally important species on the FGCU Campus: “six native species of Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae [T. balbisiana, T. fasciculata, T. paucifolia, T. recurvata, T. setacea, T. usneoides]), eight native species of Orchidaceae (Bletia purpurea, Encyclia tampensis, Eulophia alta, Habenaria quinqueseta, Spiranthes praecox, Spiranthes torta, Spiranthes vernalis, Triphora gentianoides), and two nonnative species of Orchidaceae (Oeceoclades maculata, Zeuxine strateumatica). For Florida, Coile and Garland (2003) listed Spiranthes torta and Tillandsia fasciculata as endangered and Bletia purpurea and Tillandsia balbisiana as threatened. At FGCU, Bletia purpurea inhabits the pine flatwoods discussed above.

Within this vegetation survey a number of the species found on the FGCU campus were new records for Lee County (Wilder 2006 and unpublished observations). There were also 14 species designated as Category I invasive exotic species and 10 species considered to be Category II invasive exotic species in this assessment. For a complete list of the 564 species identified in this. These are listed in Appendix B in the attached reprot and below:

Acacia auriculiformis Fabaceae
Acalypha setosa Euphorbiaceae
Acer rubrum Aceraceae
Acmella oppositifolia Asteraceae
Acrostichum aureum Pteridaceae
Aeschynomene americana Fabaceae
Agalinis purpurea Scrophulariaceae
Ageratum houstonianum Asteraceae
Aletris lutea Liliaceae
Alysicarpus ovalifolius Fabaceae
Amaranthus blitum Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Asteraceae
Ammannia latifolia Lythraceae
Ammannia coccinea Lythraceae
Ampelopsis arborea Vitaceae
Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum Poaceae
Anagallis minima Primulaceae
Anagallis pumila Primulaceae
Andropogon glomeratus Poaceae
Andropogon virginicus glaucus Poaceae
Andropogon virginicus Poaceae
Aristida patula Poaceae
Aristida spiciformis Poaceae
Aristida purpurascens tenuispica Poaceae
Aristida stricta Poaceae
Aristida palustris Poaceae
Asclepias curassavica Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias lanceolata Asclepiadaceae
Asimina reticulata Annonaceae
Aster simmondsii Asteraceae
Aster subulatus Asteraceae
Aster dumosus Asteraceae
Aster carolinianus Asteraceae
Aster concolor Asteraceae
Aster adnatus Asteraceae
Axonopus fissifolius Poaceae
Axonopus furcatus Poaceae
Azolla caroliniana Azollaceae
Baccharis glomeruliflora Asteraceae
Baccharis halimifolia Asteraceae
Bacopa caroliniana Scrophulariaceae
Bacopa innominata Veronicaceae
Bacopa monnieri Scrophulariaceae
Bartonia virginica Gentianaceae
Bejaria racemosa Ericaceae
Bigelowia nudata Asteraceae
Bischofia javanica Euphorbiaceae
Blechnum serrulatum Blechnaceae
Blechum pyramidatum Acanthaceae
Bletia purpurea Orchidaceae
Boehmeria cylindrica Urticaceae
Boerhavia sp. Nyctaginaceae
Boltonia diffusa Asteraceae
Buchnera americana Scrophulariaceae
Burmannia biflora Burmanniaceae
Burmannia capitata Burmanniaceae
Callicarpa americana Verbenaceae
Calyptocarpus vialis Asteraceae
Campyloneurum phyllitidis Polypodiaceae
Canna flaccida Cannaceae
Caperonia castaneifolia Euphorbiaceae
Cardamine flexuosa Brassicaceae
Carex longii Cyperaceae
Carex verrucosa Cyperaceae
Carphephorus corymbosus Asteraceae
Carphephorus odoratissimus Asteraceae
Cassythia filiformis Lauraceae
Cenchrus echinatus Poaceae
Cenchrus gracillimus Poaceae
Centella asiatica Araliaceae
Cephalanthus occidentalis Rubiaceae
Chamaecrista fasciculata Fabaceae
Chamaecrista nictitans Fabaceae
Chamaesyce blodgettii Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce hirta Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce hypericifolia Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce maculata Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce opthalmica Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce prostrata Euphorbiaceae
Chaptalia tomentosa Asteraceae
Chenopodium album sensu lato Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodiaceae
Chiococca alba Rubiaceae
Chromolaena odorata Asteraceae
Chrysopogon pauciflorus Poaceae
Cirsium horridulum Asteraceae
Cirsium nuttallii Asteraceae
Citrus aurantium grapefruit group Rutaceae
Cladium jamaicense Cyperaceae
Clematis baldwinii Ranunculaceae
Cnidoscolus stimulosus Euphorbiaceae
Commelina diffusa Commelinaceae
Commelina gambiae Commelinaceae
Conoclinium coelestinum Asteraceae
Conyza canadensis Asteraceae
Crassocephalu cepidioides Asteraceae
Crotalaria rotundifolia Fabaceae
Crotalaria spectabilis Fabaceae
Crotalaria pallida Fabaceae
Croton glandulosus var. glandulosus Euphorbiaceae
Cucumis anguria Fabaceae
Cupaniopsis anacardioides Sapindaceae
Cuphea carthagenensis Lythraceae
Cyclospermum leptophyllum Apiaceae
Cynanchum scoparium Asclepiadaceae
Cynodon dactylon Poaceae
Cyperus compressus Cyperaceae
Cyperus croceus Cyperaceae
Cyperus difformis Cyperaceae
Cyperus distinctus Cyperaceae
Cyperus esculentus Cyperaceae
Cyperus flavescens Cyperaceae
Cyperus haspan Cyperaceae
Cyperus involucratus Cyperaceae
Cyperus iria Cyperaceae
Cyperus ligularis Cyperaceae
Cyperus odorataus Cyperaceae
Cyperus polystachyos Cyperaceae
Cyperus pumilus Cyperaceae
Cyperus retrorsus Cyperaceae
Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae
Cyperus sphacelatus Cyperaceae
Cyperus surinamensis Cyperaceae
Dactyloctenium aegyptium Poaceae
Dalbergia sissoo Fabaceae
Dalea carnea var. carnea Fabaceae
Descurainia pinnata Brassicaceae
Desmodium incanum Fabaceae
Desmodium paniculatum Fabaceae
Desmodium tortuosum Fabaceae
Desmodium triflorum Fabaceae
Desmodium triflorum white flrd. forma Fabaceae
Dichanthelium aciculare Poaceae
Dichanthelium commutatum subsp. joorii Poaceae
Dichanthelium dichotomum subsp. microcarpon Poaceae
Dichanthelium dichotomum subsp. roanokense Poaceae
Dichanthelium ensifolium var. ensifolium Poaceae
Dichanthelium erectifolium Poaceae
Dichanthelium laxiflorum Poaceae
Dichanthelium portoricense Poaceae
Dichanthelium strigosum glabrescens Poaceae
Dichanthelium (?) tenue Poaceae
Dichanthelium chamaelonche Poaceae
Dichondra caroliniensis Convolvulaceae
Dichromena colorata Cyperaceae
Digitaria longiflora Poaceae
Digitaria sanguinalis Poaceae
Digitaria filiformis var. filiformis Poaceae
Diodia virginiana Rubiaceae
Diospyros virginiana Ebenaceae
Drosera capillaris Droseraceae
Drymaria cordata Caryophyllaceae
Dyschoriste oblongifolia Acanthaceae
Echinochloa paludigena Poaceae
Echinochloa walteri Poaceae
Echinochloa colona Poaceae
Eclipta prostrata Asteraceae
Eleocharis baldwinii Cyperaceae
Eleocharis flavescens Cyperaceae
Eleocharis geniculata Cyperaceae
Eleocharis interstincta Cyperaceae
Eleocharis nigrescens Cyperaceae
Eleocharis cellulosa Cyperaceae
Elephantopus elatus Asteraceae
Eleusine indica Poaceae
Elionurus tripsacoides Poaceae
Elytraria caroliniensis var. angustifolia Acanthaceae
Emilia fosbergii Asteraceae
Emilia sonchifolia Asteraceae
Encyclia tampensis Orchidaceae
Equisetum hyemale Equisetaceae
Eragrostis atrovirens Poaceae
Eragrostis ciliaris Poaceae
Eragrostis elliottii Poaceae
Eragrostis gangetica Poaceae
Eragrostis virginica Poaceae
Erechtites hieracifolius Asteraceae
Eremochloa ophiuroides Poaceae
Erigeron quercifolius Asteraceae
Erigeron vernus Asteraceae
Eriocaulon compressum Eriocaulaceae
Eriocaulon decangulare Eriocaulaceae
Eriocaulon ravenelii Eriocaulaceae
Eriochloa michauxii var. michauxii Poaceae
Eryngium baldwinii Apiaceae
Eryngium yuccifolium Apiaceae
Erythrina herbacea Fabaceae
Eugenia uniflora Myrtaceae
Eulophia alta Orchidaceae
Eupatorium capillifolium Asteraceae
Eupatorium leptophyllum Asteraceae
Eupatorium mikanioides Asteraceae
Eupatorium mohrii Asteraceae
Eupatorium serotinum Asteraceae
Euphorbia polyphylla Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia pubentissima Euphorbiaceae
Eustachys glauca Poaceae
Eustachys petraea Poaceae
Euthamia minor Asteraceae
Evolvulus sericeus Convolvulaceae
Ficus aurea Moraceae
Ficus citrifolia Moraceae
Fimbristylis autumnalis Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis cymosa Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis dichotoma Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis puberula Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis schoenoides Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis spadicea Cyperaceae
Fuirena breviseta Cyperaceae
Fuirena pumila Cyperaceae
Fuirena scirpoidea Cyperaceae
Galactia elliottii Fabaceae
Galactia regularis Fabaceae
Galium tinctorium Rubiaceae
Gaura angustifolia Onagraceae
Geranium carolinianum Geraniaceae
Gnaphalium falcatum Asteraceae
Gnaphalium pensylvanicum Asteraceae
Gnaphalium obtusifolium Asteraceae
Gomphrena serrata Amaranthaceae
Gratiola ramosa Scrophulariaceae
Gratiola hispida Scrophulariaceae
Habenaria quinqueseta Orchidaceae
Habenaria floribunda Orchidaceae
Harrisella porrecta Orchidaceae
Hedyotis corymbosa Rubiaceae
Hedyotis procumbens Rubiaceae
Helenium pinnatifidum Asteraceae
Helianthus debilis debilis Asteraceae
Heliotropium polyphyllum Boraginaceae
Hemarthria altissima Poaceae
Heterotheca subaxillaris Asteraceae
Hieracium megacephalon Asteraceae
Hydrilla verticillata Hydrocharitaceae
Hydrocotlye umbellata Apiaceae
Hydrolea corymbosa Hydroleaceae
Hymenachne amplexicaulis Poaceae
Hypericum cistifolium Hypericaceae
Hypericum fasciculatum Hypericaceae
Hypericum gentianoides Hypericaceae
Hypericum hypericoides Hypericaceae
Hypericum mutilum Hypericaceae
Hypericum reductum Hypericaceae
Hypericum tetrapetalum Hypericaceae
Hypoxis juncea Amarylidaceae
Hyptis alata Lamiaceae
Ilex cassine Aquifoliaceae
Ilex glabra Aquifoliaceae
Indigofera hirsuta Fabaceae
Indigofera spicata Fabaceae
Ipomoea quamoclit Convoluvlaceae
Ipomoea sagittata Convoluvlaceae
Ipomoea triloba Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea hederifolia Convolvulaceae
Iresine diffusa Amaranthaceae
Iris hexagona Iridaceae
Iva microcephala Asteraceae
Juncus effusus subsp. solutus Juncaceae
Juncus marginatus Juncaceae
Juncus megacephalus Juncaceae
Juncus polycephalos Juncaceae
Juncus repens Juncaceae
Juncus scirpoides Juncaceae
Kyllinga brevifolia Cyperaceae
Kyllinga hyalina Cyperaceae
Kyllinga odorata cyperus sesquifolia Cyperaceae
Lachnanthes caroliana Haemodoraceae
Lachnocaulon anceps Eriocaulaceae
Lantana camara Verbenaceae
Lechea torreyi Cistaceae
Leersia hexandra Poaceae
Lemna aequinoctialis Lemnaceae
Lepidium virginicum Brassicaceae
Leptochloa fusca subs. fascicularis Poaceae
Leptochloa virgata Poaceae
Leucaena leucocephala Fabaceae
Liatris garberi Asteraceae
Liatris gracilis Asteraceae
Liatris tenuifolia Asteraceae
Licania michauxii Chrysobalanaceae
Lilium catesbaei Liliaceae
Linaria canadensis Scrophulariaceae
Lindernia crustacea Scrophulariaceae
Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea Scrophulariaceae
Lindernia grandiflora Scrophulariaceae
Linum medium Linaceae
Lipocarpha aristulata Cyperaceae
Lipocarpha maculata Cyperaceae
Lipocarpha micrantha Cyperaceae
Lobelia feayana Lobeliaceae
Lobelia glandulosa Lobeliaceae
Lobelia paludosa Lobeliaceae
Ludwigia erecta Onagraceae
Ludwigia maritima Onagraceae
Ludwigia microcarpa Onagraceae
Ludwigia octovalvis Onagraceae
Ludwigia peruviana Onagraceae
Ludwigia repens Onagraceae
Ludwigia linifolia Onagraceae
Ludwigia curtissii Onagraceae
Lycopus rubellus Lamiaceae
Lygodesmia aphylla Asteraceae
Lygodium microphyllum Schizaeaceae
Lyonia fruticosa Ericaceae
Lythrum alatum Lythraceae
Macroptilium lathyroides Fabaceae
Macrothelypteris torresiana Thelypteridaceae
Malvastrum corchorifolium Malvaceae
Manisuris rugosa Poaceae
Mecardonia acuminata subsp.peninsularis Scrophulariaceae
Medicago lupulina Fabaceae
Melaleuca quinquenervia Myrtaceae
Melanthera nivea Asteraceae
Melilotus albus Fabaceae
Melochia spicata Sterculiaceae
Melothria pendula Cucurbitaceae
Micranthemum glomeratum Scrophulariaceae
Mikania scandens Asteraceae
Mitreloa petiolata Loganiaceae
Mitreola sessilifolia Loganiaceae
Mollugo verticillata Molluginaceae
Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae
Muhlenbergia capillaris var. filipes Poaceae
Murdannia nudiflora Commelinaceae
Murdannia spirata Commelinaceae
Myrica cerifera Myricaceae
Najas guadalupensis Najadaceae
Nephrolepis cordifolia Nephrolepidaceae
Nephrolepis exaltata Nephrolepidaceae
Nephrolepis multiflora Nephrolepidaceae
Neptunia pubescens Fabaceae
Nymphaea elegans Nymphaeaceae
Nymphoides aquatica Gentianaceae
Oeceoclades maculata Orchidaceae
Oenothera laciniata Onagraceae
Oldenlandia uniflora Rubiaceae
Osmunda regalis Osmundaceae
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae
Oxypolis filiformis Apiaceae
Panicum dichotomiflorum var. bartowense Poaceae
Panicum hemitomon Poaceae
Panicum hians Poaceae
Panicum maximum Poaceae
Panicum repens Poaceae
Panicum rigidulum Poaceae
Panicum tenerum Poaceae
Panicum virgatum Poaceae
Panicum anceps Poaceae
Parietaria floridana Urticaceae
Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Vitaceae
Paspalidium geminatum Poaceae
Paspalum conjugatum Poaceae
Paspalum floridanum Poaceae
Paspalum monostachyum Poaceae
Paspalum nicorae Poaceae
Paspalum notatum var. notatum Poaceae
Paspalum repens Poaceae
Paspalum setaceum var. ciliatifolium Poaceae
Paspalum setaceum var. supinum Poaceae
Paspalum urvillei Poaceae
Paspalum vaginatum Poaceae
Passiflora suberosa Passifloraceae
Pectis glaucescens Asteraceae
Pectis prostrata Asteraceae
Persea palustris Lauraceae
Phlebodium aureum Polypodiaceae
Phragmites australis Poaceae
Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae
Phyllanthus caroliniensis saxicola Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus urinaria Euphorbiaceae
Physalis angulata Solanaceae
Physalis arenicola Solanaceae
Physalis walteri Solanaceae
Physostegia purpurea Scrophulariaceae
Phytolacca americana Phytolaccaceae
Pilea microphylla Urticaceae
Piloblephis rigida Lamiaceae
Pinguicula pumila Lentibulariaceae
Pinus elliottii Pinaceae
Piriqueta cistoides Turneraceae
Pityopsis graminifolia Asteraceae
Plantago virginica Plantaginaceae
Pleopeltis polypodiodes Polypodiaceae
Pluchea carolinensis Asteraceae
Pluchea odorata Asteraceae
Pluchea rosea Asteraceae
Poinsettia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae
Polygala balduinii Polygalaceae
Polygala grandiflora Polygalaceae
Polygala lutea Polygalaceae
Polygala nana Polygalaceae
Polygala setacea Polygalaceae
Polygonum densiflorum Polygonaceae
Polygonum lapathifolium Polygonaceae
Polygonum punctatum Polygonaceae
Polygonum hydropiperoides Polygonaceae
Polypremum procumbens Buddlejaceae
Pontederia cordata Pontederiaceae
Portulaca amilis Portulacaceae
Portulaca oleracea Portulacaceae
Portulaca pilosa Portulacaceae
Potamogeton illinoensis Potamogetonaceae
Proserpinaca palustris Haloragaceae
Proserpinaca pectinata Haloragaceae
Psilocarya nitens
Psilotum nudum Psilotaceae
Pteridium aquilinum var. caudatum Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium aquilinum var. pseudocaudatum Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteris tripartita Pteridaceae
Pteris vitattata Pteridaceae
Pterocaulon pycnostachyum Asteraceae
Ptilimnium capillaceum Apiaceae
Quercus laurifolia
sensu lato Fagaceae
Quercus minima Fagaceae
Quercus virginiana Fagaceae
Rapanea punctata Myrsinaceae
Rhexia mariana Melastomataceae
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Myrtaceae
Rhus copallinum Anacardiaceae
Rhynchelytrum repens Poaceae
Rhynchospora corniculata Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora divergens Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora fascicularis Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora fernaldii Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora filifolia Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora globularis var. globularis Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora inundata Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora microcarpa Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora odorata Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora plumosa Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora tracyi Cyperaceae
Richardia brasiliensis Rubiaceae
Richardia grandiflora Rubiaceae
Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae
Rorippa teres Brassicaceae
Rotala ramosior Lythraceae
Rubus trivialis Rosaceae
Rudbeckia hirta var. angustifolia Asteraceae
Rumex obovatus Polygonaceae
Sabal palmetto Arecaceae
Sabatia bartramii Gentianaceae
Sabatia brevifolia Gentianaceae
Sabatia grandiflora Gentianaceae
Sabatia stellaris Gentianaceae
Sabatia stellaris white flrd. forma Gentianaceae
Saccharum gigantium Poaceae
Sacciolepis indica Poaceae
Sacciolepis striata Poaceae
Sagittaria graminea var. chapmanii Alismataceae
Sagittaria lancifolia Alismataceae
Salix caroliniana Salicaceae
Salvia misella Lamiaceae
Salvinia minima Salviniaceae
Samolus ebracteatus Primulaceae
Samolus floribundus Primulaceae
Sarcostemma clausum Asclepiadaceae
Schinus terebinthifolius Anacardiaceae
Schizachyrium scoparium Poaceae
Schoenus nigricans Cyperaceae
Scirpus validus Cyperaceae
Scleria baldwinii Cyperaceae
Scleria ciliata var. ciliata Cyperaceae
Scleria ciliata var. curtissii Cyperaceae
Scleria distans Cyperaceae
Scleria georgiana Cyperaceae
Scleria reticularis Cyperaceae
Scleria verticillata Cyperaceae
Scoparia dulcis Veronicaceae
Senecio glabellus Asteraceae
Senna obtusifolia Fabaceae
Senna occidentalis Fabaceae
Serenoa repens Arecaceae
Sesbania herbacea Fabaceae
Setaria parviflora Poaceae
Sida acuta Malvaceae
Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae
Sideroxylon reclinatum Sapotaceae
Sisyrinchium nashii Iridaceae
Smilax auriculata Smilacaceae
Smilax bona-nox Smilacaceae
Smilax laurifolia Smilacaceae
Solanum americanum Solanaceae
Solanum viarum Solanaceae
Solidago fistulosa Asteraceae
Solidago leavenworthii Asteraceae
Solidago odora Asteraceae
Solidago sempervirens Asteraceae
Solidago stricta Asteraceae
Sonchus asper Asteraceae
Sonchus oleraceus Asteraceae
Sorghastrum secundum Poaceae
Spermacoce assurgens Rubiaceae
Spermacoce verticillata Rubiaceae
Spigelia anthelmia Strychnaceae
Spiranthes praecox Orchidaceae
Spiranthes torta Orchidaceae
Spiranthes vernalis Orchidaceae
Spiranthes odorata Orchidaceae
Spirodela polyrhiza Lemnaceae
Sporobolus indicus Poaceae
Sporobolus junceus Poaceae
Stachytarpheta urticifolia Verbenaceae
Stillingia aquatica forma with red inflorescences Euphorbiaceae
Stillingia aquatica Euphorbiaceae
Stillingia sylvatica Euphorbiaceae
Stylosanthes biflora Fabaceae
Syngonanthus flavidulus Eriocaulaceae
Taxodium distichum
sensu lato Taxodiaceae
Thalia geniculata Marantaceae
Thelypteris dentata Thelypteridaceae
Thelypteris kunthii Thelypteridaceae
Thelypteris palustris Thelypteridaceae
Tillandsia balbisiana Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia fasciculata Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia paucifolia Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia recurvata Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia setacea Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia usneoides Bromeliaceae
Toxicodendron radicans Anacardiaceae
Tridax procumbens Asteraceae
Triphora gentianoides Orchidaceae
Typha domingensis Typhaceae
Urena lobata Malvaceae
Urochloa ramosa Poaceae
Urochloa subquadripara, distachya Poaceae
Urtica chamaedryoides Urticaceae
Utricularia cornuta Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia foliosa Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia gibba Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia inflata Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia purpurea Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia radiata Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia resupinata Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia simulans Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia subulata Lentibulariaceae
Verbesina virginica Asteraceae
Vernonia blodgettii Asteraceae
Vernonia cinerea Asteraceae
Vicia acutifolia Fabaceae
Vigna luteola Fabaceae
Viola lanceolata Violaceae
Vitis cinerea Vitaceae
Vitis rotundifolia Vitaceae
Vitis shuttleworthii Vitaceae
Vittaria lineata Vittariaceae
Waltheria indica Sterculiaceae
Wedelia trilobata Asteraceae
Woodwardia virginica Blechnaceae
Xyris caroliniana Xyridaceae
Xyris elliottii Xyridaceae
Xyris longisepala Xyridaceae
Youngia japonica Asteraceae
Zamia sp. Zamiaceae
Zephyranthes simpsonii Amaryllidaceae
Zeuxine strateumatica Orchidaceae
Sacoila lanceolata lanceolata Orchidaceae
Dichanthelium ensifolium var. unciphyllum Poaceae
Rhexia cubensis Melastomataceae

In addition, from Will Sanders collections on campus, including the community-based Fungus Foray project:
Fungal species:
Boletellus ananas
Boletus rubricitrinus
Clathrus ruber
Cyathus stercorius
Lentinus crinitus
Pisolithus tinctorius
Phylloporous rhodoxanthus
Pycnoporous cinnabarinus
Tremella fuciformis
Tremellodendron sp.

Appendix C – Wildlife List
This is a preliminary list that is under development. These species have been identified through a variety of course and student projects, and through the Wildlife Club’s FGCU Campus Wildlife Project on inaturalist.org (http://www.inaturalist.org/projects/fgcu-campus-wildlife). One priority for next year is more focused efforts to consolidate all of the animal species lists. Many taxa have not been identified down to species level. Listed or protected species are identified in bold. Each taxa category has a separate section for exotics.
Grass shrimp Ostrocoda, Cyprididae
Everglades crayfish (Procambarus alleni)
Pond snails Limnaeidae
Regal Darner (Coryphaeschna ingens)
Halloween Pennant (Celithemis eponina)
Damselfly Ischnura sp.
Water beetle (Hydrocanthus oblongus)
Water scorpion (Ranatra sp.)
Water strider Gerridae
Water bugs (Belostoma sp.)
Midge larvae Chironomidae
Eastern Lubber Grasshopper (Romalea microptera)
Polydamas Swallowtail (Battus polydamas)
Cloudless Sulphur (Phoebis sennae)
Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea)
Cassius Blue (Leptotes cassius)
Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)
Zebra Heliconian (Heliconius charitonius)
Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
White Peacock (Anartia jatrophae)
Queen (Danaus gilippus)
Streaked Sphinx (Protambulyx strigilis)
Banded Sphinx (Eumorpha fasciatus)
Green Lynx Spider (Peucetia viridans)
Spotted Orbweaver (Neoscona crucifera)
Whitebanded Crab Spider (Misumenoides formosipes)
Arrowshaped Micrathena (Micrathena sagittata)
Gray Wall Jumper (Menemerus bivittatus)
Orchard Orbweaver (Leucauge venusta)
Southern Black Widow (Latrodectus mactans)
Carolina Wolf Spider (Hogna carolinensis)
Six-spotted Fishing Spider (Dolomedes triton)
Dark Fishing Spider (Dolomedes tenebrosus)

Zebra jumping spider (Salticus scenicus)

New Guinea flatworm (Platydemus manokwari)
European honey bee (Apis mellifera)
Yellow-banded millipede (Anadenobolus monilicornis)

Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)
Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)
Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)
Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna)
Least killifish (Heterandria formosa)
Golden top minnow (Fundulus chrysotus)
Florida flagfish (Jordanella floridae)
Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhyncus)
Spotted sunfish (Lepomis punctatus)
Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
Silver Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Spotted tilapia (Tiliapia mariae)
Walking catfish (Clarias batrachus)
Brown hoplo (Hoplosternum littorale)
Jewel Cichlid (Hemichromis bimaculatus)

Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula)
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)
Great Egret (Ardea alba)
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)
Green Heron (Butorides striatus)
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)
Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
American Kestrel (Falco sparvarius)
Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinica)
Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)
Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina)
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)
Chuck-will’s-widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis)
Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)
Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus)
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe
Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus)
Purple Martin (Progne subis)
Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)
Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)
American Robin (Turdus migratorius)
Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)
Northern Mockinbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)
Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata)
Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmarum)
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)

Cattle Egret (Bulbulcus ibis)
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)


Green treefrog (Hyla cinerea)
Squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)
Pine Woods Tree Frog (Hyla femoralis)
Pig frog (Rana grylio)
Bull frog (Rana catesbeiana)
Southern Leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)
Southern Cricket frog (Acris gryllus)
Eastern Narrow-mouth toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis)
Oak toad (Bufo quercicus)
Southern toad (Bufo terrestris)
Pennisula newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)
Greater siren (Siren lacertian)
Two-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma means)

Green anole (Anolis caroliniana)
Southeastern five-lined skink (Plestiodon inexpectatus)
Black racer (Coluber constrictor)
Florida bandedwater snake (Nerodia fasciata pictiventris)
Green water snake (Nerodia floridana)
Eastern diamondback (Crotalus adamanteus)
Eastern Mud snake (Farancia abacura)
Ringneck Snake (Diadophis punctatus)
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus)
Yellow rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis)
Scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea)
Scarlet knigsnake (Lampropeltis elapsoides)
Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)
American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)
Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)
Florida Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina bauri)
Striped mud turtle (Kinosternon baurii)
Florida redbelly turtle (Pseudemys nelson)
Florida Softshell Turtle (Apalone ferox)
Peninsular Cooter (Pseudemys peninsularis)
Pond Slider (Trachemys scripta)

Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis)
Greenhouse frog (Eleuthrodactylus planirostris)
Brown anole (Anolis sagraei)
Knight Anole (Anolis equestris)
Mediterranean House Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)
Brahminy blind snake (Indotyphlops braminus)


Common Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
Florida Black Bear (Ursus americanus floridanus)
Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi)
River Otter (Lontra canadensis)
Bobcat (Lynx rufus)
White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
Human (Homo sapiens)
Shermans’s fox squirrel (Sciurus niger shermani)
Eastern Gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)
Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)
Marsh Rabbitt (Sylvilagus palustris)
Virginia opossum (Didelphus marsupialis)
Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)
Cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)
Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)

Rats (Rattus sp.)
Feral hog (Sus scrofa)
Coyote (Canis latrans)

A brief description of plans or programs in place to protect or positively affect identified species, habitats and/or environmentally sensitive areas:

A number of faculty are involved in on-campus monitoring or research projects. The faculty research is disseminated to the campus community through research days, lectures, and their participation on university shared governance committees that inform the campus plans.

• M. Abercrombie is working with Environmental Health and Safety to integrate a Fall section of Environmental Chemistry to monitor water quality in our stormwater management system.

• B. Bovard has on-going projects to examine carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems using measurement of photosynthesis. In addition, he has several course activities exploring invertebrate distributions on campus.

• E.M. Everham III has established a long-term 1 ha forest dynamics plot on campus, monitoring the effect of invasive plants, and their removal, on the growth and survival of native trees. He has several course activities focused on stormwater ponds, monitoring aquatic invertebrates and fish communities. This Fall he will be teaching a graduate seminar focused on monitoring and CEM review.

• C.W. Gunnels IV has on-going projects exploring behavior of a variety of taxa including ring-necked snakes, sliders, and arthropods, including butterflies and social insects. These projects include examing the impacts of human development and landscaping.

• J.A. Herman is an urban wildlife ecologist with a variety on campus based projects including the impact of development on herpetofauna communities, macroinvertebrate communities in stormwater ponds, and an on-going campus study of habitat use and population dynamics of eastern diamondback rattlesnakes using radio telemetry.

• K. Lefevre is an ornithologist, has student projects quantifying habitat use and distribution of avian species on campus, and is leading the Motus tracking project.

• S. Thomas has developed a research program exploring the dynamics of stormwater ponds throughout southwest Florida. His work on campus has involved quantifying groundwater interactions with these aquatic systems.

We have several priorities for future initiatives to continue to monitor and nurture biological diversity and ecological function on the FGCU campus.

• This year we will be focus on revitalizing the Campus Ecosystem Model. These efforts will include offering a graduate seminar on ecological monitoring that will serve to review the overall monitoring effort and recommend modifications and additions. We will also update the CEM website.

• This year we will also attempt to build on the FGCU Wildlife Project – initiated by the Wildlife Club - and fully update the campus species lists. This project is intended to evolve into an on-line food web that evolves through time with input from student projects.

• In 2017 a radio tower for the Motus wildlife tracking system was installed on campus. This technology has been applied at a landscape scale to track migrating birds, but this radio technology allows extremely small transmitters that have been used for studying insect movement. We have two additional towers that we intent to install on campus and allow finer spatial resolution. This technology promises to support a plethora of possible student projects that explore habitat use and behavioral changes in response to human activity and development.

• Several of the campus habitats are adapted to periodic fire. The last prescribed burn on campus was conducted in 1998. A wildfire burned approximately 120 ha (300 a) of the campus in May of 2004. We have been managing the fire adapted ecosystems with mechanical harvest to reduce fuel loads. This year we plan to reintroduce prescribed fire on campus.

• Working through the Environmental Sustainability Committee we intend to reestablish the wildlife subcommittee to formalize policies on human wildlife interactions. We also will be evaluating pesticide use on campus toward minimizing use and impacts on non-target species.

The website URL where information about the programs or initiatives is available:

Additional documentation to support the submission:

2015-2015 Campus Master Plan Update. http://www.fgcu.edu/Facilities/MasterPlan2015.html

FGCU Campus Land Use Report (http://www.fgcu.edu/Provost/files/Final_Campus_Land_Use_Report.pdf)

Campus Ecosystem Model http://www.fgcu.edu/CAS/CEM

Tolley, S.G., M.R. McDonald, E.M. Everham III, and M. Savarese. 2002. The Campus Ecosystem Model: Teaching Students Environmental Stewardship. Journal of College Science Teaching. 31(6): 364-369. http://www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/college_science.php?news_story_ID=46684

Cross-curricular integration of the Florida Gulf Coast University campus as a living laboratory. Oral presentation by Brian Bovard. Co-authors: M.I. Abercrombie, K. Byrne-Bailey, N. Creagan, D, A. Croshaw, R. E. Cross, N. E. Demers, E. M. Everham III, C. Evers, L. Frost, A. Goebel, C.W. Gunnels IV, J. Herman, R. Holtzclaw, J. Kakareka, S. Komisar, K. Lefevre, K. Leone, J. H. MacDonald, V. McConnell, J. Phillips, R. Pires, M. Savarese, H. Skaza-Acosta, B. Thomas, S.Thomas, S.G. Tolley, H. Urakawa, H. Urakawa, M. Voytek, H. Walsh-Haney 2017 Charlotte Harbor Watershed Summit: Showcasing Our Accomplishments. March 28-30, 2017. Punta Gorda, Florida. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/252fd8_359cbe49701e4331adb31cfbc22d6001.pdf

Ecological State of the Florida Gulf Coast University Campus 1994-2014. Oral presentation, Edwin M. Everham III. Charlotte Harbor Watershed Summit: Our Vision in Action. March 25-27, 2014. Punta Gorda, Florida. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bxoHQw7HnM

The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution or simply email your inquiry to stars@aashe.org.