|Submission Date||Feb. 28, 2019|
OP-5: Building Energy Consumption
|3.57 / 6.00||
Figures needed to determine total building energy consumption:
|Performance Year||Baseline Year|
|Grid-purchased electricity||56,858 MMBtu||62,617 MMBtu|
|Electricity from on-site renewables||120.12 MMBtu||0 MMBtu|
|District steam/hot water (sourced from offsite)||0 MMBtu||0 MMBtu|
|Energy from all other sources (e.g., natural gas, fuel oil, propane/LPG, district chilled water, coal/coke, biomass)||158,384.78 MMBtu||170,640 MMBtu|
|Total||215,362.90 MMBtu||233,257 MMBtu|
Start and end dates of the performance year and baseline year (or 3-year periods):
|Start Date||End Date|
|Performance Year||July 1, 2017||June 30, 2018|
|Baseline Year||July 1, 2004||June 30, 2005|
A brief description of when and why the building energy consumption baseline was adopted (e.g. in sustainability plans and policies or in the context of other reporting obligations):
This is the baseline year we have used throughout all of our STARS reporting during our 2011, 2013 and 2016 submissions, and we have made an effort to continue to use it for this most recent submission.
Gross floor area of building space:
|Performance Year||Baseline Year|
|Gross floor area of building space||2,094,839 Gross Square Feet||1,968,654 Gross Square Feet|
Source-site ratio for grid-purchased electricity:
Total building energy consumption per unit of floor area:
|Performance Year||Baseline Year|
|Site energy||0.10 MMBtu / GSF||0.12 MMBtu / GSF|
|Source energy||0.16 MMBtu / GSF||0.19 MMBtu / GSF|
Percentage reduction in total building energy consumption (source energy) per unit of floor area from baseline:
Degree days, performance year (base 65 °F / 18 °C):
|Degree days (see help icon above)|
|Heating degree days||7,271 Degree-Days (°F)|
|Cooling degree days||319 Degree-Days (°F)|
Floor area of energy intensive space, performance year:
|Laboratory space||98,315 Square Feet|
|Healthcare space||9,194 Square Feet|
|Other energy intensive space|
EUI-adjusted floor area, performance year:
Building energy consumption (site energy) per unit of EUI-adjusted floor area per degree day, performance year:
Documentation (e.g. spreadsheet or utility records) to support the performance year energy consumption figures reported above:
A brief description of the institution's initiatives to shift individual attitudes and practices in regard to energy efficiency (e.g. outreach and education efforts):
Bowdoin runs annual energy conservation competitions among the residence halls. These are designed to be fun and engaging way to get students talking about their daily energy habits. The competitions are typically a four week duration in the fall, and longer time periods in the spring (6-8 weeks). Bowdoin also uses the Green Living Commitment and the Green Office Certification programs to promote energy conservation habits among students, faculty, and staff.
A brief description of energy use standards and controls employed by the institution (e.g. building temperature standards, occupancy and vacancy sensors):
Bowdoin's winter heating set-point is 68 degrees and the summer cooling set-point is 76 degrees. All centrally controlled or programmable spaces are set to these temperatures during the respective season. A campus-wide e-mail is sent out at the beginning of each heating and cooling season asking those who are not working in centrally controlled buildings to maintain these temperatures as a means of helping the campus achieve financial savings and reduce our carbon emissions. Bowdoin has two energy management systems. Johnson Controls Metasys is one system monitoring 90% of the buildings. Invensys/Vykon System monitors the remaining 10%. Timers are set for 85% of campus buildings. These buildings are monitored by Facilities Management during business hours and by the Office of Safety and Security's Communications Center during non-business hours. Bowdoin uses several types of vacancy controls to reduce unnecessary energy consumption. The College uses occupancy sensors in spaces like restrooms, classrooms, and the library's stacks as part of a lighting control system which turns off lights in offices and classrooms when unoccupied.
Additionally, Bowdoin uses day-lighting controls in many building spaces that have ample daylight (i.e. hallways and stairwells) by shutting lights off via a photo sensor when it is sunny outside, and turning them on at night and on cloudy/rainy days.
A brief description of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting and other energy-efficient lighting strategies employed by the institution:
Bowdoin began installing LED lighting on campus in November 2010. Since that time the majority of Bowdoin's buildings have converted to LED lighting. Additionally, starting in the fall of 2015 the Sustainability Office began offering free LED bulbs to students during Orientation, replacing the CFL distribution program that began in 2005. Bowdoin also recognizes occupancy controls and photo sensors as additional means to reduce the electricity demand of lighting - see above for more details.
A brief description of passive solar heating, geothermal systems, and related strategies employed by the institution:
Bowdoin uses a geothermal heating and cooling system for two of the first-year residential dorms. By drilling a series of wells, pumping the water to the surface and running it through compressors and heat exchangers, it is possible to heat and cool entire buildings with groundwater while reducing the College's reliance on fossil fuels. Bowdoin also uses a geothermal heating and cooling system for Studzinski Recital Hall. Two of Bowdoin's most recently constructed buildings, the Roux Center for the Environment and 216 Maine Street (Office building) are utilizing air-to-air heat pumps as the primary source for both heating and cooling, helping to electrify Bowdoin's heating needs.
A brief description of co-generation employed by the institution, e.g. combined heat and power (CHP):
In 2012 the College installed a new back pressure steam turbine that was part of a combined heat and power project to use excess steam energy to generate electricity for campus consumption, offsetting electricity previously purchased from the grid. The cogeneration system supplies approximately 8% of the total campus electricity consumption, thus helping Bowdoin cut its energy costs and carbon emissions. This initiative earned EPA's 2015 ENERGY STAR® Combined Heat and Power Award.
A brief description of the institution's initiatives to replace energy-consuming appliances, equipment and systems with high efficiency alternatives (e.g. building re-commissioning or retrofit programs):
It has been standard protocol for the past 15 years for Bowdoin to replace any older equipment such as refrigerators and air conditioning units with energy star rated appliances.
The website URL where information about the programs or initiatives is available:
Additional documentation to support the submission:
The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution and complete the Data Inquiry Form.