Overall Rating Silver
Overall Score 46.77
Liaison Franklin Lebo
Submission Date May 27, 2022

STARS v2.2

Baldwin Wallace University
OP-9: Landscape Management

Status Score Responsible Party
Complete 1.00 / 2.00 Franklin Lebo
Assistant Professor of Sustainability
Sustainability
"---" indicates that no data was submitted for this field

Total campus area:
150 Acres

Figures required to calculate the total area of managed grounds:
Area (double-counting is not allowed)
Area managed organically, without the use of inorganic fertilizers and chemical pesticides, fungicides and herbicides 0 Acres
Area managed in accordance with an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program that uses selected chemicals only when needed 115.45 Acres
Area managed using conventional, chemical-based landscape management practices 0 Acres
Total area of managed grounds 115.45 Acres

A brief description of any land excluded from the area of managed grounds:

The land excluded from the managed grounds includes the footprints of all buildings on campus which includes 1,505,337 square feet of building space.


Percentage of grounds managed organically:
0

A brief description of the organic landscape management program:
---

Percentage of grounds managed in accordance with an IPM program:
100

A copy of the IPM plan or program:
---

A brief description of the IPM program:

The Ground's foreman, Keith Lawson, is in charge of BW's IPM program. The policy is to "use pesticides wisely, sparingly, as little as possible, and only when other methods fail." Additional published guidelines include that "[c]ollateral damage to landscape shall be prevented at all times."

To further clarify how this policy is carried out in a holistic assessment fashion, when Buildings and Grounds encounters an issue with either an insect or disease problem, one of the first questions asked is whether the problem tolerable. A lot of insect and disease plant problems are closely associated with the type of weather conditions that we are experiencing at the time. For example when we are having a cool wet spring we will see more things such as powdery mildew and apple scab on plants. If it is a warm and drier spring we will see much less of these issues. The same type thing can happen with certain insects that can harm plants. Some insect populations can fluctuate with different weather conditions. By monitoring the weather conditions we can somewhat anticipate what we may see during the current growing season. That will help us make better decisions about if we need to consider using chemicals or leaving nature run its course that year and doing nothing. We would then depend on things such as improving weather conditions and beneficial insect populations solve the problem for us without the use of pesticides. A good example of IPM and what we do is the approach that we have started to take with our many campus crabapple trees. Many crabapple trees suffer from a disease called apple scab it affects the foliage of the trees in the spring when we have cool and wet weather for extended days in April and May. The effects of our crabs when they become infected with apple scab is that the trees will tend to start dropping their leaves in the mid-summer then becoming unattractive by late summer.F ortunatly the disease is not life threatening to the trees. In the past we would have the trees sprayed in early spring with a fungicide to help prevent the onset of apple scab on our crabapple trees. Some years this worked and some years it did not. By taking an IPM approach we decided that we would stop spraying the trees every spring and just accept the fact that our crabapples could possibly look less appealing in the late summer and avoiding the yearly application of a pesticide. Another aspect of IPM is the use of natural and organic products such as fertilizers and insect sprays that we are using more and more of in place of conventional pesticides.

To help reduce the use of pesticides, B&G is instructed to avoid specified species of exterior plants and select from a designated list of disease and insect resistant plants thereby obviating the need for the use of pesticides. Plant material with a history of problems on the Baldwin Wallace University campus include:
1. Cornus Florida
2. Juniperus (Ground Cover Juniper)
3. Pinus Mugo Mugo
4. Pyrus Calleryana “Bradford”
5. Vinca Minor
6. Ajuga Raptans
7. Iberis Sempervirens
Simultaneously, the list of approved plants that are encouraged to be used due to their disease and pest resistant qualities along with their "landscape value" and "low maintenance" qualities that have been successful on campus include:
1. Large Deciduous Trees
a. Gleditsia Tricanthos Inermis
b. Tilia Cordata
c. Quercux
d. Betula
e. Ulmus
2. Small Ornimental Deciduous Trees
a. Malus
b. Carpinus
c. Prunus
d. Cornus Mas
e. Magnolia (Late blooming variety)
f. Cotinus
3. Large Evergreens
a. Picea
b. Pinus Strobes
c. Tsuga
4. Small Evergreen Trees
a. Thuja (Single stem)
b. Ilex Opaca
c. Juniperus
d. Taxus
e. Chamaecyparis
5. Flowering Shrubs
a. Spiraea
b. Abelia
c. Itea
d. Viburnum
6. Non-Flower and Evergreen Shrubs
a. Berberis
b. Taxus
c. Ilex Crenata
d. Thuja
e. Chamaecyparis
f. Ligustrum

The deeper specifics of the IPM program are as follows for lawns and exterior plants including organic content requirements for topsoil are excerpted below.
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BALDWIN WALLACE COLLEGE DESIGN GUIDELINES & CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
DIVISION 32 – EXTERIOR IMPROVEMENTS
SECTION 329200 – LAWNS AND GRASSES
PART 1: GENERAL
1.1 Scope of Standard
This standard provides general guidance concerning the specific preferences of the Baldwin Wallace
University for lawns and grasses.
Project conditions and requirements vary, thus precluding the absolute adherence to the items identified
herein all cases. However unless adequate written justification is provided, then it is expected that these
guidelines will govern the design and specifications.
1.2 Submittals
Product Date: For each type of product indicated.
Material Test Reports: For existing surface soil and imported topsoil.
Maintenance Instructions: Recommended procedures to be approved by Owner for maintenance of lawns
during a calendar year. Submit before expiration of required maintenance periods.
1.3 Quality Assurance
Topsoil Analysis: Furnish soil analysis by a qualified soil testing laboratory stating percentages of organic
matter; gradation of sand, silt, and clay content; cation exchange capacity; deleterious material; pH; and
mineral and plant nutrient content of topsoil.
1. Report suitability of topsoil for lawn growth. State recommended quantities of nitrogen, phosphorous, and
potash nutrients and soil amendments to be added to produce satisfactory topsoil.
Pre-installation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements in Division 01.
1.4 Scheduling
Planting Restrictions: Plant during one of the following periods. Coordinate planting periods with
maintenance periods to provide maintenance from date of Substantial Completion.
1. Spring Planting: March 15 – June 15
2. Fall Planting: August 15 – November 15
1.5 Lawn Maintenance
Begin maintenance immediately after each area is planted and continue until acceptable lawn is established
but for not less than the following periods:
1. Seeded Lawns: 60 days from date of Substantial Completion.
a. When full maintenance period has not elapsed before end of planting season, or if lawn is not fully
established, continue maintenance during next planting season.
2. Sodded Lawns: 60 days from date of Substantial Completion.
Mow lawn as soon as top growth is tall enough to cut (max 3 inches). Schedule initial and subsequent
mowing to maintain the following grass height:
1. Mow grass 3 inches high.
PART 2: PRODUCTS
2.1 Seed (Preferred over sod)
Grass Seed: Blue-grass blend or turf-type fescue. Coordinate with Baldwin Wallace University grounds
foreman.
2.2 Turf Grass Sod
Turf Grass Sod: Certified Number 1 Quality/Premium, including limitations on thatch, weeds, diseases,
nematodes, and insects, complying with TPI's “Specifications for Turf Grass Sod Materials” in its “Guideline
Specifications to Turf Grass Sodding”. Furnish viable sod of uniform density, color, and texture, strongly
rooted, and capable of vigorous growth and development when planted.
Turf Grass Species: Sod of grass species as follows, with not less than 95 percent germination, not less than
85 percent pure seed, and not more than 0.5 percent weed seed:
1. Full Sun: Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis), a minimum of three cultivars
2. Sun and Partial Shade: Proportioned by weight as follows:
a. 50 percent Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa Pratensis)
b. 30 percent chewings Red Fescue (Festuca Rubra variety)
c. 10 percent perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
d. 10 percent Redtop (Agrostis Alba)
3. Shade: Proportioned by weight as follows:
a. 50 percent chewings Red Fescue (Festuca Rubra variety)
b. 35 percent rough Bluegrass (Poa Trivialis)
c. 15 percent Redtop (Agrostis Alba)
2.3 Topsoil
Topsoil: ASTM D 5268, pH range of 5.5 to 7, a minimum of 6 percent organic material content; free of stones
1 inch or larger in any dimension and other extraneous materials harmful to plant growth. To be determined
by the Baldwin Wallace University project representative.
2.4 Inorganic Soil Amendments
Lime: ASTM C 602, agricultural limestone containing a minimum 80 percent calcium carbonate equivalent
and as follows:
1. Class: Class O, with a minimum 95 percent passing through No. 8 (2.36 millmeters) sieve and a minimum
55 percent passing through No. 60 (0.25 millimeters) sieve.
Sulfur: Granular, biodegradable, containing a minimum of 90 percent sulfur, with a minimum 99 percent
passing through No. 6 sieve and a maximum 10 percent passing through No. 40 sieve.
2.5 Organic Soil Amendments
Compost: Well-composted, stable, and weed-free organic matter, pH range of 5.5 to 8; moisture content 35 to
55 percent by weight; 100 percent passing through ½-inch sieve; soluble salt content of 5 to
10 decisiemens/meter; not exceeding 0.5 percent inert contaminants and free of substances toxic to plantings;
and as follows:
1. Organic Matter Content: 50 to 60 percent of dry weight.
2.6 Fertilizer
Bonemeal: Commercial, raw or steamed, finely ground; a minimum of 1 percent nitrogen and 10 percent
phosphoric acid. Standard analysis is 10-20-20.
2.7 Planting Soil Mix
Planting Soil Mix: Consult with Baldwin Wallace University Buildings & Grounds
PART 3: EXECUTION
3.1 Lawn Preparation
Newly Graded Subgrades: Loosen subgrade to a minimum depth of 6 inches. Remove stones larger than 1
inch in any dimension and sticks, roots, rubbish, and other extraneous matter and legally dispose of them off
Owner’s property.
1. Spread planting soil mix to a depth of 6 inches but not less than required to meet finish grades after light
rolling and natural settlement.
2. Spread approximately one-half the thickness of planting soil mix over loosened subgrade. Mix thoroughly
into top 2 inches of subgrade. Spread remainder of planting soil mix.
Unchanged Subgrades: If lawns are to be planted in areas unaltered or undisturbed by excavating, grading, or
surface soil stripping operations, prepare surface soil as follows:
1. Loosen surface soil to a depth of at least 6 inches. Apply soil amendments and fertilizers according to
planting soil mix proportions and mxi thoroughly into top 6 inches of soil.
2. Remove stones larger than 1 inch in any dimension and sticks, roots, trash, and other extraneous matter.
3.2 Seeding
Sow seed at the rate of 6 to 8 pounds/1000 square feet.
3.3 Sodding
Lay sod within twenty-four (24) hours of harvesting.
BALDWIN WALLACE COLLEGE DESIGN GUIDELINES & CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
DIVISION 32 – EXTERIOR IMPROVEMENTS
SECTION 329300 – EXTERIOR PLANTS
PART 1: GENERAL
1.1 Scope of Standard
This standard provides general guidance concerning the specific preferences of the Baldwin Wallace
University for exterior plants.
Project conditions and requirements vary, thus precluding the absolute adherence to the items identified
herein all cases. However unless adequate written justification is provided, then it is expected that these
guidelines will govern the design and specifications.
1.2 General Requirements
Do not plant over utilities.
Provide strategic plant selection and placement in relative to lighting and circulation. Coordinate with
Baldwin Wallace University grounds foreman for planting depths. Generally, plants to be set with root flare at
grade.
Provide adequate drainage in planting beds and lawns.
Provide adequate soil nutrients.
Plant material with a history of problems on the Baldwin Wallace University campus includes:
1. Cornus Florida
2. Juniperus (Ground Cover Juniper)
3. Pinus Mugo Mugo
4. Pyrus Calleryana “Bradford”
5. Vinca Minor
6. Ajuga Raptans
7. Iberis Sempervirens
1.3 Submittals
Material Test Reports: For existing surface soil and imported topsoil.
Maintenance Instructions: Recommended procedures to be established by Owner for maintenance of exterior
plants during a calendar year.
1.4 Warranty
Special Warranty: Warrant the following exterior plants, for the warranty period indicated, against defects
including death and unsatisfactory growth, except for defects resulting from lack of adequate maintenance,
neglect, or abuse by Owner, or incidents that are beyond Contractor’s control.
Warranty Period for Trees and Shrubs: One (1) year from date of Substantial Completion.
2. Warranty Period for Ground Cover and Plants: Six (6) months from date of Substantial Completion.
1.5 Maintenance
Trees and Shrubs: Maintain for the following maintenance period by replacing dead or damaged plants, by
pruning, cultivating, watering, weeding, fertilizing, restoring planting saucers, tightening and repairing takes
and guy supports, and resetting to proper grades or vertical position, as required to establish healthy, viable
plantings. Spray as required to keep trees and shrubs free of insects and disease. Restore or replace damaged
tree wrappings.
1. Maintenance Period: Six (6) months from date of Substantial Completion.
Ground Cover and Plants: Maintain for the following maintenance period by watering, weeding, fertilizing
and other operations as required to establish healthy, viable plantings.
1. Maintenance Period: Six (6) months from date of Substantial Completion.
PART 2: PRODUCTS
2.1 Plants Preference
This is a list of preferred plant material by Baldwin Wallace University. It should be used as a guide for
selecting plant material for the Baldwin Wallace University campus. This list is not all inclusive but has been
created from these criteria.
1. Disease and insect resistant
2. Growth rate
3. Habit
4. Aesthetics
5. Leaf and flower color
6. Landscape value
7. Low maintenance
Plant List
1. Large Deciduous Trees
a. Gleditsia Tricanthos Inermis
b. Tilia Cordata
c. Quercux
d. Betula
e. Ulmus
2. Small Ornimental Deciduous Trees
a. Malus
b. Carpinus
c. Prunus
d. Cornus Mas
e. Magnolia (Late blooming variety)
f. Cotinus
3. Large Evergreens
a. Picea
b. Pinus Strobes
c. Tsuga
4. Small Evergreen Trees
a. Thuja (Single stem)
b. Ilex Opaca
c. Juniperus
d. Taxus
e. Chamaecyparis
5. Flowering Shrubs
a. Spiraea
b. Abelia
c. Itea
d. Viburnum
6. Non-Flower and Evergreen Shrubs
a. Berberis
b. Taxus
c. Ilex Crenata
d. Thuja
e. Chamaecyparis
f. Ligustrum
2.2 Topsoil
Topsoil: ASTM D 5268, pH range of 5.5 to 7, a minimum of 6 percent organic material content; free of stones
1 inch or larger in any dimension and other extraneous materials harmful to plant growth.
2.3 Fertilizer
Commercial Fertilizer: Commercial-grade complete fertilizer of neutral character, consisting of fast and slow
release nitrogen, 50 percent derived from natural organic sources of urea formaldehyde, phosphorous, and
potassium in the following composition:
1. Composition: Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in amounts recommended in soil reports from a
qualified soil-testing agency.
2.4 Mulches
Organic Mulch: Free from deleterious materials and suitable as a top dressing of trees and shrubs, consisting
of one of the following:
1. Shredded hardwood is the standard. Wood chips are acceptable.
2. Finish depth of mulch in planting beds is not to exceed 3 inches.
2.5 Planting Soil Mix
Planting Soil Mix: Topsoil mix with the soil amendments to be approved by the Baldwin Wallace University
Buildings and Grounds Department.
2.6 Planting Bed Establishment
Loosen subgrade of planting beds to a minimum of depth 6 inches. Remove stones larger than 1 inch in any
dimension and sticks, roots, rubbish, and other extraneous matter and legally dispose of them off Owner’s
property.
1. Spread planting soil mix to a depth of 2 feet but not less than required to meet finish grades after natural
settlement. Do not spread if planting soil or subgrade is frozen, muddy, or excessively wet.
a. Spread approximately one-fourth the thickness of planting soil mix over loosened subgrade. Mix
thoroughly into top 3 inches of subgrade. Spread remainder of planting soil mix.


A brief description of the institution's approach to plant stewardship:
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A brief description of the institution's approach to hydrology and water use:
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A brief description of the institution's approach to landscape materials management and waste minimization:
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A brief description of the institution's approach to energy-efficient landscape design:
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A brief description of other sustainable landscape management practices employed by the institution:
---

Website URL where information about the institution’s sustainable landscape management program is available:
Additional documentation to support the submission:

We appreciate Keith Lawson, Grounds Foreman for Buildings and Grounds, for his assistance in describing the specific policies carried out.

The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution or simply email your inquiry to stars@aashe.org.